Saturday, May 23, 2020
Anhydrous literally means no water. In chemistry, substances without water are labeled anhydrous. The term is most often applied to crystalline substances after the water of crystallization is removed. Anhydrous can also refer to the gaseous form of some concentrated solutionsÃ or pure compounds. For example, gaseous ammonia is called anhydrous ammonia to distinguish it from its aqueous form. Gaseous hydrogen chloride is called anhydrous hydrogen chloride to distinguish it from hydrochloric acid. Anhydrous solvents are used to perform certain chemical reactions that, in the presence of water, either cannot proceed or yield unwanted products. Examples of reactions with anhydrous solvents include the Wurtz reaction and the Grignard reaction. Examples Anhydrous substances exist in solid, liquid, and gas forms. Table salt is anhydrous sodium chloride (NaCl).Gaseous HCl is anhydrous, which differentiates it from hydrochloric acid, a solution of 37 percent HCl in water (w/w).Heating copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4Ã ·5H2O) yields anhydrous copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4). How Anhydrous Chemicals Are Prepared The method of preparation depends on the chemical. In some cases, simply applying heat can drive off water. Storage in a desiccator can slow rehydration. Solvents may be boiled in the presence of a hygroscopic material to prevent water from returning to the solution.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
SS1611 Movies and Psychology Story Book Movie TitleÃ¯ ¼Å¡The Shawshank Redemption Student NameÃ¯ ¼Å¡Lee Lok Yiu Student NumberÃ¯ ¼Å¡53057085 Teacher Name Ã¯ ¼Å¡Dr. Andus Wong Summary of the movie The story begins with a young and successful banker Andy Dufresne whose life changes dramatically when he is convicted of the murderer of his wife and her secret lover. Therefore, Andy is sent to Shawshank Prison to be permanently sentenced despite his claims of innocence. During time in prison, Andy builds up friendship with Red, who is ShawshankÃ¢â¬â¢s black market dealer that could supply anyone with almost everything. Therefore, Andy also has to face the cruel(Do you need to use this word?) reality: a corrupt warden and guards as well as prisoners whoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Zajonc (1970) described the mere exposure effect as Ã¢â¬Å"Mere exposure breeds likingÃ¢â¬ . When Andy first arrives at Shawshank Prison, Red bets that he will be the first one to collapse that night. Apparently, Red knows very little about Andy at the beginning of the movie. However, as time goes by, Red begins to be close with Andy. In jail, people are filled with negative emotions and tons of d ifficulties. Under this cruel circumstances (What circumstances?), Andy and Red are always together and share with each other about all of their lives, which help them develop their precious friendship. At the end of the film, they are still the best friend of each other. Their shared belief and experience tight them together till the end of their life. Brooks Secondly, mental disorders are shown in the movie. In Shawshank Prison, most of the prisoners suffer from institutional syndrome which refers toÃ¢â¬Å"deficits or disabilities in social and life skills, which develop after a person has spent a long period living in mental hospitals, prisons, or other remote institutions. Ã¢â¬ (Williams, 1994) This disorder is common to be found with people who live in institutions over a long period of time. Therefore, the sufferers are unable to handle themselves in the world outside the institutions. They would often feel depressed. Brooks is the one who suffers from institutional syndrome. Brooks already mentioned (You have not mentioned Brook in the summary above!) has lived in the jail for fifty
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
To what extent did Russia undergo economic and political reform in the years 1906-14? After the 1905 revolution Russia was in need of reforms both economically and politically, to allow it maintain its role of a great power and to prevent another revolution occurring the answer to this was the October Manifesto. However, due to the stubbornness of the Tsar who was determined not to relinquish his autocratic powers, what may have appeared as reforms were largely superficial making little change in particular to the Russian political system. In early 1906 the October Manifesto was published as a result of the 1905 revolution and as a way to appease the peasants and appear as a revolutionary change, when truly very little was changed by this. We will write a custom essay sample on To what extent did Russia undergo economic or any similar topic only for you Order Now Political activity was now legal so political parties now no longer needed to remain secrets; freedom of speech was also introduced along with the introduction of a state elected Duma. Most of these changes were made as a bid to make the peasants content and prevent the chances of another revolution; however this also banned trade unions and newspapers. The introduction of the first Duma was short lived due to to the disapproval of the Tsar, who dissolved it under the Fundamental Law, after only 73 days. This was due to the number of members that were revolutionaries, who wanted to push through more moral ideas and reforms than the Tsar was willing to do, only 2 out of 391 made it into the law. This then led to the Wborg manifesto, which was a group of frustrated Duma members teaming up to go against the TsarÃ¢â¬â¢s action of raising taxes Ã¢â¬â unfortunately this backfired, leading to all 200 members being banned from standing in the next Duma. The next Duma followed a similar suit, Just with the gaining of the Social Revolutionaries and the Social Democrats gaining seats, it was the third and fourth Dumas that raised the most change within Russian society, but this may have been due to the Electoral Reform. In order to make sure that the government gained the best support, voting was restrained to the wealthy, meaning that only 30% of Russia could vote. This meant that the majority of the revolutionaries supporters could not vote, leading to to mostly pro-government parties winning the vote. The Duma was never seen as political institution and was never meant to be, it was supposed to be a simple forum o please the masses and make them believe that the autocracy was listening. The Third ; Fourth Dumas managed to make some successful reforms as the government were more inclined to listen to them, they managed to replace the biased Land Captains, introduced universal primary education, create health and accident insurance programmes and made improvements to the army and navy. Despite the fact that the Duma were never supposed to be parliamentary, they still successfully managed to have the Duma debates reported in the press, meaning that the reformers and radicals participating managed to influence public opinion egitimately Ã¢â¬â something that had been denied to them previously. This reform had helped helped create political reform, as it had created a space where a forum for political debate could be taken note ot, and could be published without being censored. It meant that political parties had been established legally, and despite the fact that the Third and Fourth Dumas thwarted many reforms, they helped too, as not all of the seats in this institution had been pro-government. Another factor affecting the amount of political change over the years is the use of Peter Stolypin, the Russian Prime Minister from 1906- 1911. It is hard not to see Stolypin as a reformer, as he evidently saw what policies and laws needed to be changed or created in order to vanquish any repeat of the revolution, as he brought great changed to the Russian countryside, giving peasants the freedom to leave their communes, offering them cheap land in Siberia, or helping them to own their pieces of land through the redistribution of peasant wealth through the Land Bank. This had a big impact, as it lead to 50% of peasants having ownership of land, and agricultural production had risen from 45. 9 million tonnes to 61. 7 million tonnes in 1913. It is said by historians hat had war not broken out, Russia could have developed a more stable, loyal and prosperous peasantry, as Stolypin envisaged. On the other hand, despite the rise on crop yields and production, not much was done about the living and working conditions of RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s industrial workers. This was definitely shown after his assassination, where a plague of Russian unrest came around again, only leading to the Lena Goldfield massacre of 1912 in Siberia, which led to strikers being killed by the police. This was then a tipping point for more strikes and demonstrations, reminiscent of the 1905 revolution, to take place, showing that despite the fact Stolypin had helped reform a little economically, it was immediately undone by the wrath of popular unrest amongst the lower classes once more. From these two arguments it is very easy to see points helping question the extent of the Russian economic and political changes over the years, but I believe that the true tipping point comes to the Fundamental Law. This Fundamental Law, created in 1906, created the constitution of the Russian Empire, creating a national parliament with the lower house (the Duma), being elected. This all sounds very good, and sounds like political eforms were in their heights in 1906 Ã¢â¬â but this was completely changed in Article 87. This gave the right for the Tsar to govern by decree, thereby ignoring his faithfully createdÃ¢â¬â¢ parliament. This basically meant that the creation of the Duma was practically pointless, as the Tsar could still change his mind as to what laws he wanted created, and which laws he would go against, putting incredible restrictions on how much could be done within the Russian Empire. Therefore, I find that the extent to which the Russian Empire underwent economic and political changes were the smallest possible, as Nicholas was not willing to create any reforms. How to cite To what extent did Russia undergo economic, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Elizabethan Theater Essay, Research Paper Outline Thesis: Elizabethan Drama changed literature and theatre into what it is today. I. History of Elizabethan Theater a. forming of theatre 1. mediaeval church 2. enigma and morality b. histrions 1. knaves and stealers 2. moving clubs II. Influences and people a. commanding histrions 1. Shakspere 2. Burbage b. other 1. wars of the roses ( other historical influences ) 2. Torahs curtailing theatre III. The theatres a. monetary values 1. seating 2. phase b. the theatre and the Earth 1. locations and features 2. Burbage and other achievement Elizabethan Drama During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, England underwent a dramatic alteration in precedences. The importance of art and literature became extremely prevailing. The impact of the Elizabethan play and manner still influences civilization. It changed altered it into what it modern literature and theatre is today. The Elizabethan Age began during the last 20 old ages of Elizabeth I? s reign ( Lace, 71 ) . Elizabeth loved the humanistic disciplines and England had increased in wealth and internal peace ( Lace, 71 ) . Elizabethan play placed its roots in the mediaeval church ( Lace, 71 ) . Since all services were held in Latin, a linguistic communication common people did non talk, priests acted out the narratives of the bible to learn ( Lace, 71 ) . Get downing in church behind the alter, plays grew more popular as more people wanted to see them ( Lace, 71 ) . When there were non adequate priests to make full the functions, common mans were given parts. Finally, the common people took over the dramas and the church became less involved ( Lace, 72 ) . The scriptural dramas transformed into enigma and morality dramas. Morality plays were more serious and meant to learn people the difference between right and incorrect ( Lace, 78 ) . Mystery plays, while still learning ethical motives, were the more entertaining dramas. Both were extremely spiritual. The histrions of the clip led an equi vocal life. In the first half of the sixteenth century they were seen as little better than stealers ; some, in fact, were stealers ( Lace, 73 ) . While some histrions were executing others would travel through the crowds and choice pocket ( Lace, 74 ) . Touring companies were little, normally less than 10 people ( Lace, 74 ) . Actors traveled by waggon and slept in or under them ( Lace, 74 ) . Almost no adult females were histrions, adult females? s parts were played by younger male childs ( Lace, 74 ) . Elizabethan theatre was strongly influenced by persons and events # 8211 ; It besides was an influence on the people themselves. Although there were many outstanding histrions and dramatists, merely a few are acknowledged for their affect in modeling early theatre. When Christopher Marlowe, the most celebrated dramatist in his clip ( Lace, 79 ) , died, William Shakespeare was his replacement. Shakespeare decided play was to be his calling after seeing the Queen? s Players during a visit to his hometown of Stratford-on-Avon in 1587 ( Lace, 79 ) . By the clip of Marlowe? s decease, Shakespeare was already good known for his three portion? Henry VI? in 1592 ( Lace, 79 ) . His dramas? Love? s Labour? s Lost? and? Romeo and Juliet? , both in 1594, were performed and he became the most outstanding dramatist of his clip ( Lace, 79 ) . Before Elizabeth? s reign was over, ? Richard II? , ? Julius Caesar? , ? Henry V? , and? Hamlet? had been performed ( Lace, 79 ) . James Burbage was the 2nd most influential histrion of the Elizabethan period, but non merely for his acting endowment. Burbage built the first of all time public wendy house in England, opening in 1576 ( Unknown, 218 ) . Burbage financed the edifice of? The Theater? entirely, a good off adult male but was still considered a knave. Actor s were non the lone influence on theatre. When Mary Tudor decided the throne was truly hers, the War of the Roses ensued ( Lace, 73 ) . Because of the War of the Roses, many Lords, that employed histrions, were killed ( Lace, 73 ) . This forced histrions to organize their ain companies ( Lace, 73 ) . In 1572, parliament passed the Poor Laws, doing it a condemnable discourtesy to be a vagabond ( Lace, 75 ) . This reduced the figure of moving companies and required them to be licensed by the authorities ( Lace, 75 ) . Companies already sponsored by Lords were given licences ( Lace, 75 ) . This made deriving legal position an of import measure for the acting profession ( Lace, 75 ) . Informal protection was now backed up by the jurisprudence, this was utile to the increasing ill will of metropolis functionaries towards dramas and histrions ( Lace, 75 ) . The basis of Elizabethan Drama were, in fact, the theatre houses themselves. At? The Theater? the monetary value of admittance was a penny, this entitled one to stand on the land around the phase ( Lace, 77 ) . The poorest and most rambunctious were looked down upon by the more good off, who called them groundlings ( Lace, 77 ) . The following higher were low galleries that cost another penny, and monetary values travel up the higher you go ( Lace, 77 ) . The highest gallery were private suites, but non the most expensive ( Lace, 77 ) . The most expensive were on the phase itself. These people frequently disturbed the public presentation by speaking, playing cards, or demoing off new vesture ( Lace, 77 ) . The theatres were built much like the tribunal yards the histrions were used to ( Lace, 76 ) . The edifice was round and the phase extended out so that the audience about surrounded it ( Lace, 76 ) . Scenery was limited but particular effects were now possible ( Lace, 76 ) . Actors could start up through trap doors or be lowered from above from a room known as? heaven? ( Lace, 76 ) . At the rear of the phase there were two doors used for both scenery and histrions ( Lace, 76 ) . Wing were suites for storage, ? palling suites? ( where histrions got appareled, dressed ) and the green room where histrions waited for their cues to travel onstage ( Lace, 76 ) . ? The Theatre? was an immediate success with both upper and in-between categories ( Lace, 77 ) . Middle-class merchandisers, largely puritans, disliked dramas but learners frequently snuck off from work to watch them ( Lace, 77 ) . The audience was largely male. Traveling to a public drama, even if escorted, was considered non respectable for adult females ( Lace, 77 ) . Merely lowest category adult females and the greatest Lords enjoyed dramas by themselves ( Lace, 77 ) . Upper categ ory adult females and the greatest Lords enjoyed dramas, but the histrions came and performed in private halls ( Lace, 77 ) . The Globe was the most celebrated of all the Elizabethan theatres ( Lace, 77 ) . In 1594, Burbage? s rental had run out on? The Theatre? and the landlord wanted to raise rent ( Lace, 77 ) . They argued for old ages. Finally Burbage tore down? The Theatre? and transported the timber across the Thames to Southwark and built The Globe ( Lace, 77 ) . The new theatre was occupied by the freshly formed Lord Chamberlain? s Players, founded by Elizabeth? s cousin, Lord Hudson ( Lace, 77 ) . This most celebrated company included Shakespeare and James Burbage? s boy Richard, considered the best histrion of the clip ( Lace, 77 ) . Opened to the populace in 1599 with Shakespeare? s? Henry V? ( Lace, 78 ) . Some historiographers believe Shakespeare played the portion of chorus stating: ? But pardon gentles all, The level arraised liquors that hath dared On this unworthy scaffold to convey Forth So great an object can this cockpit keep The immensely [ huge ] field of France? Or may we jam With in this wooden O the really casques [ helmets ] That did frighten the air at [ the Battle of ] Agincourt? ( Lace, 78 ) . All the minor inside informations and piddle ways that shaped the manner of the Elizabethan epoch are the same that changes the manner of modern times. Unknown to the pioneers of their clip, their parts to the theatre they lived for are still recognized and appreciated. Had it non been for these baronial few literature and theatre would non rather be the art signifier it is today. 4e0 Lace, William W. Elizabethan England. San Diego, Ca. Lucent Books, 1995. Boas, Fredrick S. An Introduction to Tudor Drama. Oxford, Eng. Clarendon Press, 1977. ? The English Theater. ? Cultural Atlas of the Renaissance, p218. Arnold Edward. , ed Prentive Hall Literature. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: PrenticeHall, 1989. Internet. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.springfield.k12.il.us/schools/springfield/eliz/costumes.html.
Tuesday, March 24, 2020
A. Needle Exchange Controversy Essays - Drug Culture, Prevention A. Needle Exchange Controversy Needle Exchange Programs: The Best Solution? [emailprotected] The United States of America has been contending with adverse social and economic effects of the drug abuse, namely of heroin, since the foundation of this country. Our initial attempt to outlaw heroin with the Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 resulted in the U.S. having the worst heroin problem in the world (Tooley 540). Although the legislative actions regarding heroin hitherto produced ominous results that rarely affected any individuals other than the addict and his or her family, the late twentieth century brings rise to the ever-infringing AIDS epidemic in conjunction with heroin abuse. The distribution of clean needles to intravenous (IV) drug users is being encouraged in an attempt to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from sharing contaminated needles (Glantz 1077). It is the contention of this paper to advocate the establishment and support of needle exchange programs for intravenous drug users because such programs reduce the spread of HIV and do n ot cause an increase of drug use. This can be justified simply by examining the towering evidence that undoubtedly supports needle exchange programs and the effectiveness of their main objective to prevent the spread of the HIV. Countries around the world have come to realize that prohibiting the availability of clean needles will not prevent IV drug use; it will only prevent safe IV drug use (Glantz 1078). Understanding that IV drug use is an inescapable aspect of almost every modern society, Europeans have been taking advantage of needle exchange programs in Amsterdam since the early 1980's (Fuller 9). Established in 1988, Spain's first needle exchange program has since been joined by 59 additional programs to advocate the use of clean injection equipment (Menoyo 410) in an attempt to slow the spread of HIV. Several needle exchange programs sponsored by religious organizations in Australia have reported no new HIV infections resulting from needle sharing over the past three years (Fuller 9). Public safety groups in the United States are rapidly beginning to accept the effectiveness of needle exchange programs. The 113 needle exchange programs that are currently operating throughout the United States (Bowdy 26) are a result of this acceptance. These programs for the most part are established to support needle exchange more so than needle distribution (Fuller 10). Many needle exchange programs have been initiated by recovering addicts who understand the realities of addiction and the potential harm of needle sharing (Fuller 9). Perhaps addicts feel more comfortable taking advice from some one whom has been there and knows what they are going through. Social interaction between the addict and program is quite simple. Program clients are asked to donate their old injection equipment in exchange for new materials and identification cards issued by some programs, allowing the users to carry their injection equipment anywhere (Loconte 20), reducing the need to share needles. Vo lunteers keep track of old needles collected and sterile ones given out with a coding system that allows participants to remain anonymous (Green 15). Unlike some of their European counterparts, needle exchange programs in the U.S. do not advocate the use of vending machines to dispense hypodermic needles (Fuller 10). American programs understand the grave importance of regular contact between the addict and caring members of society who inform addicts about various avenues of health care and recovery during each visit (Fuller 10). The assistant director of the Adult Clinical AIDS Program at Boston Medical Center, Jon Fuller, feels that this intimate approach by American programs conveys a powerful message to addicts that their lives and well-being are still valued by the community despite their inability to break the cycle of addictive behavior (10). Addicts who can not stay clean or get admitted into a drug treatment program should be encouraged to take the necessary precautions to perform safe injections and not put others at risk as a result of their habit (Glantz 1078). From 1981 to 1997, drug related HIV cases in the United States rose from 1 to 31 percent not including infants and sexual partners infected by the user (Fuller 9). With contaminated needles infecting 33 Americans with HIV daily (Fuller 11), it was only a matter of time before an in-depth analysis
Friday, March 6, 2020
Johann Sebastian Bach - Summary of His Life Johann Sebastian Bach was one of the greatest composers in Western musical history. More than 1,000 of his compositions survive. Some examples are the Art of Fugue, Brandenburg Concerti, the Goldberg Variations for Harpsichord, the Mass in B-Minor, the motets, the Easter and Christmas oratorios, Toccata in F Major, French Suite No 5, Fugue in G Major, Fugue in G Minor ("The Great"), St. Matthew Passion, and Jesu Der Du Meine Seele. He came from a family of musicians. There were over 53 musicians in his family over a period of 300 years. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, Germany on March 21, 1685. His father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was a talented violinist, and taught his son the basic skills for string playing; another relation, the organist at Eisenach's most important church, instructed the young boy on the organ. In 1695 his parents died and he was only 10 years old. He went to go stay with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. Johann Christoph was a professional organist, and continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as on the harpsichord. After several years in this arrangement, Johann Sebastian won a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Northern Germany, and so left his brother's tutelage. A master of several instruments while still in his teens, Johann Sebastian first found employment at the age of 18 as a "lackey and violinist" in a court orchestra in Weimar; soon after, he took the job of organist at a church in Arnstadt. Here, as in later posts, his perfectionist tendencies and high expectations of other musicians - for example, the church choir - rubbed his colleagues the wrong way, and he was embroiled in a number of hot disputes during his short tenure. In 1707, at the age of 22, Bach became fed up with the lousy musical standards of Arnstadt (and the working conditions) and moved on to anoth... Free Essays on Johann Sebastian Bach Free Essays on Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach - Summary of His Life Johann Sebastian Bach was one of the greatest composers in Western musical history. More than 1,000 of his compositions survive. Some examples are the Art of Fugue, Brandenburg Concerti, the Goldberg Variations for Harpsichord, the Mass in B-Minor, the motets, the Easter and Christmas oratorios, Toccata in F Major, French Suite No 5, Fugue in G Major, Fugue in G Minor ("The Great"), St. Matthew Passion, and Jesu Der Du Meine Seele. He came from a family of musicians. There were over 53 musicians in his family over a period of 300 years. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, Germany on March 21, 1685. His father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was a talented violinist, and taught his son the basic skills for string playing; another relation, the organist at Eisenach's most important church, instructed the young boy on the organ. In 1695 his parents died and he was only 10 years old. He went to go stay with his older brother, Johann Christoph, who was a professional organist at Ohrdruf. Johann Christoph was a professional organist, and continued his younger brother's education on that instrument, as well as on the harpsichord. After several years in this arrangement, Johann Sebastian won a scholarship to study in Luneberg, Northern Germany, and so left his brother's tutelage. A master of several instruments while still in his teens, Johann Sebastian first found employment at the age of 18 as a "lackey and violinist" in a court orchestra in Weimar; soon after, he took the job of organist at a church in Arnstadt. Here, as in later posts, his perfectionist tendencies and high expectations of other musicians - for example, the church choir - rubbed his colleagues the wrong way, and he was embroiled in a number of hot disputes during his short tenure. In 1707, at the age of 22, Bach became fed up with the lousy musical standards of Arnstadt (and the working conditions) and moved on to anoth...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Socialgical research paper - Essay Example Additionally, other school discipline issues such as drug abuse, cheating, bullying, truancy, disrespect of authority, and minor misdemeanors plague educational institutions, resulting to innumerable classroom and school disruptions, as well as almost two million suspensions yearly. (Hymowitz, 2000) It comes as no surprise then that most schools in the United States have decided to impose a zero tolerance policy-and it is not something new. According to a survey of the U.S. Department of Education at least a decade ago, of more than 1,200 public schools, approximately three-quarters of schools in the United States have reported practicing a version of a no-tolerance policy-"79 percent had zero-tolerance policies against violence, 88 percent for drugs, 91 percent for weapons and 94 percent for firearms." (Witt, 2007) Many schools enforced this policy after the term "zero tolerance" became popular during the last days of Ronald Reagan's "War on Drugs" and was even made more infamous after a series of high-profile high school shootings, the American Psychological Association reported. Such policy, however, does not come without any controversy clinging to it. For one, according to the Journal of Sociology, "sociologists have historically scoffed at this latter (zero tolerance) policy." (Zajdow, 2005) Not only that, this policy has sparked numerous complaints and protests from the public through the years because of what many see as pointlessness of policies, like students being suspended or expelled for carrying a legal, non-prescription drug such as Advil in their backpacks, having pocketknives in cars, and carrying sharp tools beyond a "woodshop" class. In other cases, the policy was known to have come in conflict with religious freedom, such as the carrying of kirpans, a ceremonial dagger or sword that must be carried by baptized Sikhs. (Zero tolerance (schools)) But much worse than the irregularities is the problem of racism in terms of implementing the zero tolerance and discipline in school, according to the American Sociological Association. In fact, though, the United States is seen as the land of the free, reports of much severe punishment for African-American students than their white counterparts are prevalent. (Free, 2004) In a paper entitled "Zero Tolerance Policies and Alternative Education: Where Do We Go from Here" Janese Free states the following: "The recent rise in school violence and prevalence of weapons in the hands of students in the past twenty years has led to implementing new disciplinary policies in schools- most notably, 'zero tolerance policies.' While these seemingly 'get tough on crime' policies remain popular, criticism and skepticism as to their effectiveness and appropriateness increase daily. The implementation of these policies nationwide has resulted in dramatic increases in school exclusions (suspensions and expulsions). Not only are exclusions more prevalent, but research suggests that a disproportionate number of African American and other minority students are being excluded from schools across the country." (Free, 2004) One the questions that I honestly think should be brought to the fore: Why are African-American students punished more severely than children of other ethnic groups As, the data from the U.S. Department of Education show, "on average across the